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Clarke on the Nomenclature of Turkish Ada Minor. elxxix 

fractures had been shown to be different from those of the bones 
split by man, the latter being longitudinal. Mr. Blake further stated, 
in reply to a question put to him by Dr. Charnock, that he could not 
point out the exact position of the cave wherein Dr. Dupont had 
made the recent discoveries, but he believed it was higher tip the river 
than the caves he himself had visited in company with the Chairman. 
There had been discovered in that vicinity twenty-eight bone caves. 
Mr. Blake referred to a diagram to explain the character of the strata. 
At a level of two hundred feet above the river, there was a deposit of 
angular pebbles ; under that (in the caves) were various stalagmite 
beds, and a deposit of sand, called by Dr. Dupont lehm, or Union fltwia- 
tile, formed by the action of the river which had left it. This deposit 
was very different from the angular pebble deposit overlying it, contain- 
ing bones of reindeer. Beneath all was a stratum of rolled pebbles 
which had been for a longer time exposed to the action of water, and 
in that the remains of beaver were found. In the lehm deposit at 
the Naulette cave human remains wei*e discovered, and among them 
the jaw of a man of an age far more ancient than that of the reindeer 
period. In the stratified deposit, now called by Dr. Dupont Union 
inferieur, a succession of the remains of different extinct animals was 
found, including the rhinoceros, elephant, and bear, and now Dr. 
Dupont had discovered the bones of the cave lion associated with the 
remains of man, the bones being split longitudinally and evidently 
under the same conditions as other bones of the same period which 
had been described from other caves. The only osseous remains of 
the man of that period had been shown to the Society last autumn. 
In the cave in the South of France there was found a human tooth 
and a finger bone, associated with the hysena and rhinoceros. It 
was a rarity to find the bones of the rhinoceros split by man in the 
caves of France, but now the fact had been proved in the bone caves 
of Belgium. He hoped that Dr. Dupont would continue his valuable 
researches in those caves. 

On the Topographical Nomenclature of Turkish Asia Minor. By Hyde 
Clabke, Esq., Member of the German Oriental Society, of the 
American Oriental Society, of the Academy of Anatolia, of the 
Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries, of the Institute of Civil 
Engineers of Vienna. 

I shall first i:>roceed to notice the affinities between names in Turkis- 
tan or Tartary, as obtained from the pages of Vambeiy, and of which 
I have recognised Osmanlee equivalents. 

Kahriman is described as on the Khiva road, and Karaman as the 
name of a Turkoman tribe ; with these I compare Karaman, the name 
of a town and eyalet in Anatolia, known to Europeans as Caramania. 
Ooloo Balkan and Kuchuk (or Little) Balkan, are named as on the 
Khiva road. The title of the Balkan mountains in Roomelia readily 
suggests itself. Kara Balkan is a name of a Turkoman tribe. This 
form of Ooloo Balkan will be found in Anatolia. It is enough to 
name Ooloo Borloo, Ooloo Kyshla. Gumush Tepe, or the Silver Hill 
or Mound, is repeated naturally in Anatolia as Gumush Tepe, and as 

olxxx Journal of tin Anthropological Society. 

Gumush Dagh, or Silver Mountain. I do not consider the epithet 
necessarily betokens the presence of silver, but that it may be applied 
to a white hill. 

The epithet for black, Jcara, is of course as freely used in Turkistan 
as by the Osmanlees ; also that for white, ah, and that for red, hyzyl. 
Kara, tepeh, black hill, is on the South Caspian. Ah soo, the white 
water or white river, in Chinese Tartary, is a name commonly re- 
peated in the west. Ah mesjid, the white mosque or chapel, Whit- 
church, is found in Khiva. Kyzyl Takir is a name on the Khiva 
road. Kyzyl is a common epithet throughout the west. Takir Dagh 
is the Osmanlee name for Eodesto, on the Sea of Marmora. Orta- 
huju, another station on the Khiva road, is a constant name in the 
west ; as Ortakeue, or middle village, being the Osmanlee equivalent 
for Middleton or Milton. Karahol, on the Khiva and Bokhara road, 
the name for a guardhouse on a road, is common throughout the 
west, in Asia and Europe ; so, too, is Derbend or Derivend, the name 
for a pass or gorge. Yeni Hissar, New Castle, in Chinese Tartary, is 
another of the same class. 

Common names of villages and hamlets in the west are paralleled 
by Khojalar, in Kiva ; Kanli, in Khiva ; Boghdala, on the Khiva road ; 
Dar\, on the Khiva and Mesjid road ; Khoja Hi, on the Khiva and 
Kungrad road ; Geuhcheh, on the same road ; Shihhlar, in Khiva. 
Burunjilc, a Turkoman tribe. Chavdar, the name of a Turkoman tribe, 
we have repeated in Chavdar Hissar in Anatolia ; so, too, the name of 
Geulclan, another tribe, and of Yalova. Karaval, a name of a Turkoman 
tribe, I take to be the common form Kara aoghl in Southern Anatolia. 

Of the repetition of familiar names of towns, may be cited KhandeJc, 
in Chinese Tartary and in Anatolia. The more remarkable, however, 
are in a group in the Smyrna district : Bainder, in the Cayster valley ; 
Eiuhmish, the next town beyond it ; Ooshah, a town of the interior. 
Baindir is likewise the name of another town in Anatolia. It would 
appear as if offshoots of the Eutemish and Baindir tribes had wan- 
dered into the Cayster or Little Mseander upper valley, and there 
formed stations. 

When Professor Vambery's Dictionary of the Jagatai language ap- 
pears, this may give us more information, as it will afford materials 
for j)arallel forms of Osmanlee and Jagatai. If we possessed a greater 
number of names in Tartary, we should have better means of com- 
paring with the Ottoman empire ; for, as the system of the formation 
of local names is everywhere the same, the names of villages will 

One of the most interesting topics of inquiry, is that as to the 
tribes of Turkistan participating in the various conquests of the west. 
For this we want likewise a bederoll. Mr J. S. Taylor, H.B.M. con- 
sul at Erzeroom, has occupied himself in collecting the names of 
Arab tribes and families ; but we want the same labour for the Turko- 
mans. So far as the above few facts go, they confirm the historical 
account of the migration from east to west of these tribes. It is to 
be observed, that some of the names of tribes given in Vambery are 
derived from localities ; and, in the absence of more specific and. de- 
tailed information, we are in no position to generalise. 

Clarke on the Nomenclature of Turkish Asia Minor. clxxxi 

Then, too, comes the question of the racial character of the tribes 
of Turkistan, and of those nomad or settled in Asia Minor. There 
can be no doubt that in Asia Minor we have more than one distinct 
type. So, too, among the Krim Tartars, now in the Dobruja ; and 
everywhere the Turks are distributed. What I have noticed in 
Anatolia, among the Krim Tartar's, and among the Daghestanlis, 
is, that the upper classes resembled the Osmanlees, while the lower 
classes had a greater or less Mongol tendency, with eyes and cheek 
bones approaching the Mongol type. Among the Nogais, I did 
not notice any people of Osmanlee type. Among the tribes whose 
migrations I had the opportunity of witnessing, were the Yuruk and 
other Kyzilbash Turkomans, Krim Tartars, Koords, Nogais, and the 
so-called Circassians and Chetchens. 

The general basis of Turkish topographical nomenclature, in the 
east or the west, in Chinese Tartary or Eoumelia, in Krim Tartary or 
Persia, is of course the application of common terms, as mountain, 
hill, mound, stone, river, water, lake, pass, ford, spring, castle, village, 
plane tree, poplar, etc., with the epithets great, small, black, white, 
red, green, gold, silver, snow, old, new, middle. Thus for mountains 
we have snow, white, silver, goose, black, gold, red ; for rivers we 
have black, white, red, green, yellow, sky, diy. 

With regard to numerals, three, five, seven, and forty are favourites. 
We have heurh gechid, forty fords ; keurk aghaj, forty trees ; keurh 
kilisse, forty churches. 

The names generally are such as we used in Anglo-Saxon times, 
and we still apply in naming objects and places in America, Australia, 
and New Zealand. There are, however, features to be observed in 
those parts of the Turkish domains where they have supplanted a 
settled race. The Greek rivers retain sometimes the old name, as the 
Mendereh, the Maeander of Anatolia ; but the Cayster becomes the 
Kuehuh Mendereh, or Little Masander. Generally speaking, the rivers 
are renamed with Turkish names, denoting that when the Turkish 
immigrants arrived, the wave of war had already passed over, sweep- 
ing away the old local population, and bringing in a population suffi- 
ciently numerous to use its own language alone. It is rarely the 
name of a Greek city is saved, and then chiefly of those places on the 
coast which held out longest. Such are Smyrna, Pergamus, Magnesia 
ad Sipylum, Phocsea, in Western Anatolia. Ephesus is lost as a name, 
but preserved in a Greek form of Agios Theologos, represented by 
Ayasoloolc. Tralles was changed, and Magnesia ad Meeandram totally 
lost. Perishing Sardis was saved, but Philadelphia and Thyatira 
adopted Turkish names. It is only a few great towns, which stood 
their siege, capitulated, and maintained a partial Christian popula- 
tion, which retained their Greek names. Of this we have an example 
in Ephesus. 

In most cases, all but the walls of the city or citadel had perished, 
and these were used as sheep or cattle folds, with the simple name of 
Hissar, the equivalent of Chester and Caster. Thus Ave have : — 
Karah Hissar, Black Castle ; Karajah Hissar, Blackish Castle ; A k 
Hissar, White Castle, Whitchester ; Kyzil Hissar, Red Castle ; Gyuzel 

clxxxii Journal of the Anthropological Society. 

Ilissar, Fair Castle ; JSshe ffissar, Old Castle, Old Chester. Veeran, or 
viran and esseer, ruins, is quite as common a name. Sheher, city, applies 
as much to a ruined city as a new one ; and veeran sheher, or ruined 
city, is a special name. Thus we have reproduced the same features 
as in Anglo-Saxon Britain ; and it is only fair to believe they repre- 
sent the like facts and events. 

In Greece, although it was possessed by the Turks for centuries, we 
find few Turkish names, and the Greek nomenclature is largely pre- 
served. In Wales, too, we find Welsh names, and few English names. 

England must represent a conquest by the Anglo-Saxons in mass, 
when the country population was driven forward or extirpated ; when 
it was unsafe to keep its members as slaves, with a ready refuge to 
their brethren in the field ; and when the only portions of included 
population saved, would be the inhabitants of such towns as capitu- 
lated. It may, however, be very much questioned, if the evidence of 
local names is to be taken, whether London itself could have long- 
preserved its former inhabitants after its occupation by the invaders. 

AVhat we find in England and Turkey is identical ; but it is very 
different from what took place after the conquest of Gaul by the 
Franks, of Burgundy by the Burgundians, of Italy by the Lombards, 
of Spain by the Goths, and of Russia by the Warings. If we go be- 
yond the Turkish districts in their empire, we come tipon Greek, 
Albanian, Bulgarian, Servian, Wallak, Russian, Lesghian, Armenian, 
Koord, and Arab ; as around England we had at one time Cornish, 
Welsh, Cumbrian, and Erse, and still have Welsh and Erse, the latter 
bounding the northern advance. 

We find in Turkey another anthropological detail of interest, the 
acquisition or non-acquisition of the language of the conquerors. The 
rayah Greeks, or native Christians of Anatolia, assumed Turkish as 
their sole language, though obsolete Greek was read by the priests for 
religious service. In Candia, although one-third of the Greek popula- 
tion is Mussulman, and uses a foreign language for its worship, its 
sole spoken language is Greek. 

The question of the forced conversion of bodies of Christian natives 
of Anatolia to Islam, is not worth long consideration in reference to 
the present population. Many were doubtless converted by interest, 
and many by force ; but these have no representatives in the popula- 
tion of the interior, settled or nomad, in the hills or plains, Turkoman 
or Yurook. On the west we find no new Turkish populations ; on 
the east we are encountered by Lesghians, Armenians, and Koords. 
Nothing better attests the decline and reduction of the old popula- 
tion of Western Anatolia, than the advance of the Koords, who may 
be found at the head of the Mseander valley. Indeed, the advance 
of the Turkoman nomads, when supreme, must have been fatal to 
the Christian cultivators ; and the nomads reach the coast even now 
at every point. They come in sight of Smyrna within five miles. 
While the nomads swept the plains, some of their tribes occupied the 
hills, so that the Christians had no refuge but the great towns, where 
they were protected by treaties and charters. 

To these observations on the Turkomans of Asia Minor I will add 

Clarke, on the Nomenclature of Turkish A sia Minor, elxxxiii 

some on the Kizzilbash, in consequence of the publication of a report 
of Mr. J. G. Taylor, H.B.M. consul in Koordistan, who, on my recom- 
mendation, has been lately named as Local Secretary for Erzeroom. 
Mr. Taylor says, the Kizzilbash are semi-independent, as secure in 
their inaccessible or difficult mountains ; they pay what duties they 
like, refuse recruits, and disobey mudiers or sub-governors, other than 
those of their own race, and approved by themselves. Mr. Taylor 
estimates their whole number at not less then 200,000 men. (?) 

Their chiefs are rich in their own rude way, btit the great majority 
of the Kizzilbash are hopelessly poor, from the large amount they are 
yearly obliged to pay their aghas or chiefs, who take a fifth of their 
agricultural produce, and a certain number of sheep, butter, and 
money yearly. 

Their religion is a curious mixture of Islam, Christianity, and Pa- 
ganism. They worship the sun, large stones, and trees, and profess 
many other doctrines, which Mr. Taylor considers were originally de- 
rived from the Kerametta and Assassins, who rose in the third cen- 
tury of the Hegira, being common to the Noseegreet and Druses of 
Mount Lebanon, and other parts of Syria. On these subjects, Mr. 
Taylor, who is an accomplished Arabic scholar, is one of oiir chief 
authorities. He says, in the jumble of Kizzilbash religion, Ali holds 
the chief ]Dlace, but they regard Jesus Christ with particular respect, 
as they, in fact, believe that all the prophets and holy men from 
Adam to Ali were but different incarnations of the Deity. Ali, as 
coming last, they reverence most. 

Mysterious and scandalous rites, totally unfounded in fact, have 
been attributed to them ; such as the promiscuous intercourse of the 
sexes in a previously darkened room. This scandal, Mr. Taylor con- 
siders, has arisen from the secresy they observe during their prayer- 
meetings, at which, on stated occasions, they partake of consecrated 
bread and wine ; they are totally ignorant of reading and writing, 
and therefore generally fanatics in their faith. In religious matters, 
they, therefore, implicitly obey the guidance of their spiritual chiefs, 
called Deydees and Peyeds, who, under the circumstances, exercise 
unbounded influence over them, and preside at their prayer-meetings, 
on which occasions they chant the praises and attributes of Ali and 
the twelve Ismans. 

Mr. Taylor says that some of the Kizzilbashes, including an influ- 
ential chief and his followers, have embraced Protestant doctrines from 
an American missionary to the Armenians. 

He states that the Kizzilbash exist not only in the Deyvain in 
Koordistan, but everywhere from there to Constantinople, incmding 
the districts about Sivas, and the mountains near Malatia, Paloo, 
Adiamoo, and Kharspool, and that they are generally disaffected to 
the Osmanlees, to whom Mr. Taylor thinks they would be dangerous 
in case of a Russian invasion on that side. It may be doubted, how- 
ever, whether much as they dislike the Osmanlee, they know any kind 
of Christians so little as to prefer the latter ; they would most likely 
be found, as of old, on the side of the Osmanlee. 

I have met the Kizzilbash or Red Head in the West of Asia Minor, 

clxxxiv Journal of the Anthropological Society. 

in the mountains and valleys of the Mseander, the Cayster, and the 
Hermies, and, I believe, he is to be found on the south coast, and in 
the east beyond Turkey. In Western Asia Minor they are called 
Yurucks, and are by the Christians confounded with the gipsies. 
Their area is to be extended far beyond Mr. Taylor's limits, and they 
are deserving of special investigation. Mr. Taylor's observations are 
a good foundation. 

I have given, on this occasion, evidence of the origin of the Turko- 
man population of Asia Minor from Turkistan in confirmation of the 
historical testimony ; but in my report to the Society in Western 
Asia Minor, I have called attention to the circumstance that there 
are ethnological differences among the Turks of Asia Minor, and that 
they include two if not three races. The Osmanlees differ from the 
Kizzilbashes, but there appear to be Turkomans distinct from the 
two. The eye of the Mongol type is not common in Western Asia 
Minor, though I have observed the Mongol face and feet, it may have 
been in the case of black or Crim Tatars. Among the Grim Tatars, 
I have observed the Mongol type much more developed. 

The only distinction I have noticed among the Kizzilbashes has beeii 
in the form of the ear, and I have seen the top overlapping, but this 
may have been from the turban pressing upon it. 

Some of the mountain tribes freely yield volunteer irregular Bashi- 
bazooks, but the regular Kizzilbashes do not, and neither willingly 
supply conscripts for the regular army. Among the Bashibazooks, I 
have seen some very fine men. The regular Kizzilbashes have ap- 
peared to me more wiry. 

The Kizzilbash is poor and dirty, and his women are commonly 
dirtily dressed, which is a necessary consequence of their drudgery. 
The women do most of the hard work, while, with the Osmanlees, the 
men work and the women attend to their household duties. Many 
of the Kizzilbashes are wood-cutters and charcoal burners, and the 
women are to be seen sawing the wood, and loading the mules and 
leading them, while the man scampers along with his gun or rides. 

This state of affairs led me to make an inquiry. I have observed 
that commonly, where the women have distinct rights of property, 
as in France or Belgium, they get a heavy share of the work. I have 
seen a woman, a cow, and a donkey harnessed to a plough, of which 
a man held the stilts ; but the woman, most likely, had a distinct in- 
heritance in a small parcel of same field. Under such circumstances, 
the men are found the best dressed. The rajah or Turkish-speaking 
Greeks of Asia Minor work their women heavily in the fields, but 
then the wives transact the money business, and the daughters hold 
the chief shares in the inheritance. 

I suspect the Kizzilbash women must be under like circumstances, 
though I was assured to the contrary by well-informed persons, who, 
of course, had no positive information one way or the other. At 
length I got an occasion to test it, and we said to a Kizzilbash chief, 
" We wish to know what you do with your money when you sell 
timber; whether you keep it yourself or give it to your waves?" 
After trying to ascertain which solution would be most pleasing, and, 

Clarke on the Nomenclature of Turkish Asia Minor. clxxxv 

being left to himself with an assurance the answer was only on a 
matter of curiosity, he said, " We give our money to our wives." 

I always understood, like Mr. Taylor, that the women attend the 
prayer-meetings, that the meetings are strictly guarded by sentries, 
and that only the initiate are admitted ; and I have heard the same 
aspersions, which seem altogether inconsistent with the habits of the 
people. Of their rites I know nothing, but consider them to be sec- 
taries of Ali, from the public appellation of Kizzilbashes. I have 
found them ignorant of reading and writing, improvident in their 
habits, and not always reliable in their transactions, differing much 
from the Osmanlee. 

They speak Turkish with a strong Turkoman accent ; this, how- 
ever, of itself is no strict ethnological proof of Turkoman descent ; but 
the most anomalous member of the Turkish group is the Osmanlee 
himself, who shows a high character as decidedly as some members 
show a Mongol character. The Turkish group is more probably com- 
posed of elements brought together by political influences, and neces- 
sarily using the same language, than composed of homogeneous Mo- 
nological elements. Within an historical period tribes of Northern 
Asia have lost and acquired a Turkish language. The solution of 
these questions involves the solution of the history of the Turkish 
history and migrations. The relations between the Turk, the Manchoo, 
and the Mongol are very curious and suggestive, and they have been 
mixed together on various occasions. 

Besides the strict questions of race and language there is that of 
religion. I do not understand from Mr. Taylor's references that he 
intends to suggest any southern racial influence, but only the possible 
spread of Assassin dogmas. The Ali dogmas were possibly acquired 
in the migration through Persia, but the Assassin and Syrian dogmas 
may have been subsequently adopted. 

Mr. Mackenzie made some remarks on the adoption of the Turkish 
language by the rayah Greeks. He said, a similar practice had pre- 
vailed in Egypt, where the priests read the Coptic language without 
understanding it. 

The Chairman, referring to Dr. Clarke's remark as to the Djaghatai', 
said that the Library of the East India Company contained a fine MS. 
in that language, called Babur Nameh. The Djagatai was principally 
derived from the Uighur, which also formed the basis of the language 
of the Osmanli Turks. The author of the paper had noticed, that 
among the Anatolians, the Krim Tatars, etc., the upper classes re- 
sembled the Osmanlis, while the lower classes approached the Mongol 
type. The Chairman had noticed in Hungary that many of the lower 
orders resembled the Mongols, which convinced him that the Huns 
had never been entirely driven out of that country. Might not this 
have arisen in Anatolia, and through the alliances of the Upper classes 
with the Georgians and Circassians. Referring to the topographical 
nomenclature of the paper, the Chairman said mistakes often arose 
through confounding similar-sounding words : thus, Kahriman, on the 
Khiva road, might mean "The Hill of Pomegranates;" whereas Ka- 

clxxxvi Journal of the Anthropological Society. 

ramiiii, or Caramania, was probably derived from the name of a tribe 
or prince. Again, Balkan meant " a chain of mountains," and Ooloo 
Balkan signified the Great Balkan. Now, in Kalmuck ula, ola ohla, 
gola (from which, no doubt, the slaves got their gora) meant a " moun- 
tain," and in Mantohu, ula meant a " river." There was the Kirin 
Ula and the Sahalien Ula, i.e. " the black river," which the Chinese 
called Hih lung leeang, i.e., " the black dragon river ;" and the Tun- 
guses, the Amur or Yamur, i.e., "the great river." This little word 
ula had found its way into Finland, where there was a town named 
Uleaborg, at the mouth of the Ulea, which the Finns called TJula. 
Heemus, the classical name of the Balkan (whence the Turks got their 
Emineh Ddgh), was said to be derived from Hasmus, son of Boreas, 
who was changed into a mountain. It was perhaps the only Sanskrit 
local name in Europe ; and was, doubtless, from hirna, snow. The 
Imaus of Pliny, which, according to some, referred to a part of the 
Taurus chain in Asia Minor, and by others, to the Himalaya itself, 
meant the same thing. Pliny himself was aware that in the language 
of the natives Imaus meant " snowy." Further, Himalaya in Sanskrit 
signified "the abode of snow." 

Mr. Hyde Clabke said that the difference between the Osmanlees 
and the lower classes had been attributed by the Chairman to inter- 
marriages with Circassians and Georgians, though he was not inclined 
to adopt that opinion. Among the Krim Tartars there was a great 
distinction between the upper and the lower classes, the former hav- 
ing countenances resembling Europeans. But that was not the case 
with the Turkomans. He never knew a distinct Mongol type of face 
among them, and in that respect they were very different from the 
Krim Tartars, who had a distinct Mongol character. It was true that 
the higher classes in Turkey had intermarried with the Georgians and 
Circassians, but it became difficult to ascertain what had become of 
the offspring of those intermarriages, because the difference of type 
was not confined to the upper classes. It was a remarkable fact that 
there would seldom be found in Constantinople the descendant of an 
ancient historical family. It was the same also in the provinces ; 
their offspring appeared to become extinct in tw r o or three genera- 
tions. He was therefore inclined to doubt whether the difference in 
type was owing to intermarriages, which had produced an extinction 
of the mixed offspring. 

The next paper read was on a stone axe from Brazil. 

Notes on a Stone Axe from the Bio Madera,, Umpire of Brazil. By 
Kenneth B. H. Mackenzie, F.S.A., F.A.S.L. 

The axe now laid upon the table presents few points on which any 
comment is necessary ; but, in the unavoidable absence of Mr. Henry 
George Williams, our local secretary for Ceara, North Brazils, he has 
reqiiested me to communicate its history so far as known, and at the 
same time present it to the Museum of the Society. 

A half-caste Indian trader, Domenico Fuente, in the course of his 
business, proceeded as far west as the Kio Madera, about 60° west 
longitude, the point of confluence with the Solimoens (as the Amazonas